Archive for "Perspectives"

In Their Own Words…

Sep 06, 2012 No Comments

Leaders of the animal rights and Earth “liberation” movements often deny that their agendas are extreme, but their own words tell a different story.

Most proponents of animal rights and Earth “liberation” do not live in close proximity with nature. They live in cities, and have little contact with nature, especially wildlife. Some may keep pets, but even that is frowned upon by animal rights leaders.

Believers in animal rights want domestic breeds of animal, including livestock and pets, to be eliminated, while those animals already “enslaved” should be “liberated” from human domination. Wildlife, meanwhile, should not be managed by humans, even if this means overpopulation, habitat damage, and massive die-offs from starvation and disease.

Animal rightitsts and Earth liberationists do not tell you that putting land under the plough to grow more crops reduces habitat for wildlife. They do not tell you that the planting, fertilizing and harvesting of crops cause the deaths of countless animals. They do nottell you that most synthetic clothing is made from petro-chemicals, causing pollution and resulting in a non-biodegradable product. And they do not tell you of the vital role played by animal protein in the human diet. If you don’t believe nature intended us to be omnivores, just look at your teeth!

Confused? You will be after hearing what these animal rights and Earth “liberation” leaders have to say.

Read, in their own words, their opinions and perspectives:

Animal Defense League – Los Angeles (featuring Jerry Vlasak)

Animal Liberation Front (ALF; incl. David Barbarash, Rod Coronado, Tim Daley, Katie Fedor, Ronnie Lee, Keith Mann, Peter Young, Robin Webb)

Coalition to Abolish the Fur Trade (CAFT)

Earth First!

Earth Liberation Front (ELF) / Craig Rosebraugh

Foreman, David (The Wildlands Project; formerly with Earth First!)

Francione, Gary (Rutgers University Animal Rights Law Center)

Humane Society of the United States (HSUS)

Liberation Collective (Portland, OR)

North American Animal Liberation Press Office (NAALPO)

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PeTA)

Regan, Tom; animal rights author and philosopher

Sea Shepherd Conservation Society (“Captain” Paul Watson)

Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC) (Includes Josh Harper, Kevin Jonas)

United Poultry Concerns (Karen Davis)

Wicklund, Freeman (Compassionate Action for Animals; Animal Liberation League; Mercy for Animals)

Yourofsky, Gary; ADAPTT, PeTA; Animal Defense League – Los Angeles


  • Abbott, Erin; activist, Ocean Defense International
  • Amory, Cleveland; founder, Fund For Animals
  • Best, Dr. Steven; University of Texas professor
  • Churchill, Ward; University of Colorado professor
  • Conroy, Jake; Sea Defense Alliance and other groups
  • DeRose, Chris; President, Last Chance for Animals
  • F.A.R.M. (Farm Animal Reform Movement)
  • Katz, Elliot; CEO, In Defense of Animals
  • Manson, Charles
  • Marino, Camille (Negotiation Is Over)
  • New Jersey Animal Rights Alliance
  • Nocella, Tony; co-founder, Radical Education Community; president, Houston Animal Rights Team; Center for Animal Liberation Affairs
  • Singer, Peter; author of “Animal Liberation”; founder of International Association of Bioethics
  • Vegetarians International Voice for Animals

Other Animal Rights Quotes pages (Outside links):

AnimalRights.Net: Quotes from animal rights activists.
National Alternative Pet Association (US): Animal rights in the words of its leaders.

See also:

Words of Wisdom Quotes from supporters of animal welfare and the sustainable use of renewable natural resources.

The Animal Rights View

Sep 06, 2012 No Comments

It is said that the modern animal rights movement began with the publication of Peter Singer’s book, “Animal Liberation,” published in 1975. But the animal rights philosophy actually has its roots much deeper in history. 19th century British philosopher Jeremy Bentham pointed to the capacity for suffering as the vital characteristic that gives all sentient beings the right to equal consideration. He wrote that the capacity for suffering — and/or enjoyment or happiness — is not just another characteristic like the capacity for language or higher mathematics. The capacity for suffering is a prerequisite for having interests at all, a condition that must be met before we can speak of rights.

Singer took Bentham’s argument one step further by drawing a comparison between discrimination against humans (racism) and discrimination against animals (speciesism). According to Singer, the racist violates the principle of equality by giving greater weight to the interests of members of his/her race than to others. Similarly, the speciesist allows the interest of his/her species to override those of other species. The pattern, in Singer’s view, is identical in each case.

In both the historic and modern views of animal rights, the key point is “sentience,” or the capacity to experience pain or pleasure.

In the animal rights view, if a being is capable of suffering, there can be no moral justification for refusing to take that suffering into consideration. No matter the nature of the being, the principle of equality requires that its suffering be counted equally with the like suffering of any other being. It is true, of course, that we cannot know exactly how animals suffer. We know what pain feels like to us but not to others. We assume that our friends experience pain as we do. They don’t have to speak a word. Screaming, writhing about, crying and other behavior tells us they are in pain. We see the same sort of behavior in animals.

In the animal rights view, the question is not merely whether an animal suffers as a consequence of any particular animal use. The question is whether humans have the right to exploit other sentient beings for any purpose. Even if a particular type of animal use is considered “humane” by traditional definitions, the fact that the animal has the capacity to suffer is sufficient to make its use unacceptable.

For further information contact Fur Commission USA.


© 1998-2011 Fur Commission USA

The Animal Welfare View

Sep 06, 2012 No Comments

People are part of the natural world, and our relationship with animals is defined in large measure by the natural order. We know that humans and animals are inextricably tied together. In fact, we depend upon one another. It is virtually impossible for any living creature on this planet to exist without making use of fellow creatures. This is a fact that is unquestioned by any member of the animal kingdom with the exception of humans.

The notion of rights is a uniquely human one. Animals do not recognize the rights of other animals. They kill and eat one another as a matter of survival. But for humans, the concept of rights is a fundamental element of our social pact — the contract that permits us to live with one another in comparative harmony. As part of that contract, we recognize that rights are accompanied by responsibilities. In return for our rights as members of society, we accept the obligation to abide by society’s laws.

But animals cannot be parties to contacts. If we are prepared to assign rights to animals, what responsibilities do we expect them to fulfil?

The American Veterinary Medical Association has defined animal welfare as “a human responsibility” to assure that the basic needs of animals are met. There is no question that our power over animals brings with it the responsibility to treat them with respect and compassion.

Although many cultures have vastly differing views and traditions of animal use, most western societies have adopted basic rules governing human behavior toward animals. In the U.S., laws have been enacted at the federal level to assure the welfare of animals in medical research labs as well as the health of dogs and cats raised in professional kennels. These laws are administered by theU.S. Department of Agriculture.

In addition, most communities have local laws and ordinances to protect animals from unnecessary cruelty. These rules address everything from pet neglect and abuse to the treatment of circus animals, and from hunting and fishing to meat packing. Without addressing the issue of whether animals have inherent rights, our society has enacted laws to govern the behavior of human beings in their interaction with animals.

In the animal welfare view, social traditions and the body of existing law with respect to our use of animals are based on the premise that man’s right to use animals for human benefit carries with it the responsibility to do so humanely. These traditions and laws exist because for centuries man has recognized the wisdom and natural correctness of using animals for food, clothing, research, education and companionship.

For further information contact Fur Commission USA.


© 1998-2011 Fur Commission USA

HSUS: Won’t You Help These Lawyers? (

May 29, 2012 No Comments

Despite its name, the Humane Society of the United States is not affiliated with your local humane society. HSUS doesn’t run a single pet shelter and gives only 1 percent of its budget to local shelters.

This is news to most Americans. According to public polling, about 70 percent of Americans mistakenly believe that HSUS is a pet shelter “umbrella group” and that HSUS gives most of its money to pet shelters.

Why the massive perception-reality gap? We can certainly thank HSUS’s multimillion-dollar ad campaign. You know the formula: Slow music, B-list celebrity spokeswoman, and pictures of sad-looking dogs and cats. And that fine-print disclaimer that HSUS is independent of local humane societies? It’s on less than 1 percent of the ads. See how the scam works?

Here’s what an honest HSUS TV appeal might look like. There’s no confusion, and no need for a disclaimer. But we’re going to go out on a limb and guess it wouldn’t be quite as lucrative for HSUS.

Created by the HumaneWatch Team. For more information go to

SAGA Furs Makes Commitment to Certification

Jan 30, 2012 1 Comment


The following extract is reproduced with permission from Sandy Parker Reports, Weekly International Fur News. Sandy Parker has been covering the fur industry for more than four decades. For most of that time he has published a weekly newsletter, detailing results of international pelt auctions, wholesale price trends, business developments and movements in the trade, as well as economic and political activities that may impact on it.

Subscribe now and receive all the latest news, either in print or electronically. Just $150 a year for 48 issues! Sandy Parker Reports, 21219 Lago Circle, Boca Raton, FL 33433; Tel: (561) 477-3764; Fax: (561) 862-7052;


International Fur News
with Sandy Parker

SAGA Furs Makes Commitment to Certification

Finnish Fur Sales – now known as SAGA Furs OYJ – set new records for sales and earnings in its latest fiscal year. It is the only one of the major world fur auction houses that is publicly owned and required to publish its financial data. The report, covered the year endedAug. 31, 2011. 

In addition to the sales figures, the report also dealt with political risks such as efforts by some European governments to ban fur farming. In the Netherlands, for example, fox farming is now illegal and the lower house of parliament has decided to ban mink farming; the upper chamber has not yet voted on it. At close to 5 million pelts a year, the Netherlands is the third largest mink producer after Denmark and China.

The image of fur farming thus has taken on new importance, the report notes, particularly in the eyes of European decision makers who are not familiar with the industry. “It is essential…that the production process of fur pelts is continuously improved and any mistakes and neglect found in fur farms are quickly intervened with. Certification of fur farms is an even more integral part of the Saga Furs brand.” In that connection, the company noted that, as of last October, two-thirds of Finnish fur production was covered by certification. In the season ahead, the company will accept finnraccoons only from certified farms. The requirement will be extended to fox farms next year.



*Weather Wilts Retail Traffic

*January Weakens U.S. Season

*China, Russia Remain Strong

*Pelt Prices Seen Holding Firm

*Finnish Auction Sets New Peaks

For extracts from back issues of Sandy Parker Reports see News Index. Subscribers can access an archive of complete issues at

For further information contact Fur Commission USA.




© 1998-2011 Fur Commission USA

Commentary: The Ultimate Activist Irony

Dec 29, 2011 No Comments

They boast about how they will “take down” an evil system that exploits animals. They glory in the “bravery” of those who go underground and steal, vandalize and disrupt in order to stop the abuses they decry. Then they turn around and file suit when laws deal with the very lawlessness they espouse are used against them.

Sandy Parker Reports: Strong Demand for Mink at Season’s 1st Sale

Dec 19, 2011 No Comments


International Fur News
with Sandy Parker

Strong Demand for Mink at Season’s 1st Sale


Strong demand for mink and other furs greeted the opening Auction of the new season at Kopenhagen Fur last week, with Hong Kong/China again spearheading the activity. The possibility thatEurope’s debt crisis might lead to another global problem with an impact on fur prices had caused some apprehension. But those concerns proved unfounded as the offering was all sold at prices largely firm to levels at the close of the last season in September. Although the Danish Kroner prices that were paid were actually somewhat higher than September, the recent weakening of that currency resulted in unchanged levels in terms of U.S. dollars.


This was a typical December offering, far smaller than the main events in February and beyond, calculated to satisfy current season needs as well as production of samples for the early fairs. The sale also attracted about 20% more Chinese buyers than at last year’s event. The complete sellout at firm prices was expected to lend stability to the market until February, when the main series of auctions will reflect the results of the current retail season as well as other factors.



*Mink Firm at Kopenhagen Sale

*Strong Demand at Season Opener

*Farmed Sable Firm at Russian Sale

*U.S. Imports Rise, but Not Mink

*Holiday Sales Outlook Brighter


This extract is reproduced with permission from Sandy Parker Reports, Weekly International Fur News. Sandy Parker has been covering the fur industry for more than four decades. For most of that time he has published a weekly newsletter, detailing results of international pelt auctions, wholesale price trends, business developments and movements in the trade, as well as economic and political activities that may impact on it. 

Subscribe now and receive all the latest news, either in print or electronically. Just $150 a year for 48 issues! Sandy Parker Reports, 21219 Lago Circle, Boca Raton, FL 33433; Tel: (561) 477-3764; Fax: (561) 862-7052;

For extracts from back issues of Sandy Parker Reports see News Index. Subscribers can access an archive of complete issues at


For further information contact Fur Commission USA.




© 1998-2011 Fur Commission USA

US Mink: State of the Industry – 2011

Dec 13, 2011 No Comments


By Simon Ward,


The economies of developed nations – all of them important markets for fur – have been in turmoil since the global recession began in 2008. One of the two biggest markets, Russia, is struggling to achieve meaningful growth, while the Japanese market is saddled with the enormous cost of the earthquake and tsunami last March.  The debt crises in the Eurozone is stoking fears of a double-dip recession, and one country already paying the price of a broken financial system, Greece, is the major supplier of fur apparel to Russia.

Yet despite this gloomy backdrop, the outlook for US mink farmers remains bright, thanks to two shining stars. China, the biggest manufacturer and consumer of mink apparel, continues to show strong economic growth. And equally strong growth – 8% for apparel – is predicted for a second straight year in the global luxury goods market.

On the domestic front, the US fur retail market continues to decline in importance to the prosperity of mink farmers. Consumer confidence in the economy has improved in the last three years and while fur retail as a whole seems set to increase this winter in dollar terms, the volume of mink apparel imports has been falling due to higher costs at the wholesale level.

Meanwhile, output of farmed mink in most major producing nations has grown for the second straight year, in response to record-breaking prices in the last two rounds of international auctions. The one possible exception is the US, with one set of statistics suggesting the crop will grow, and another that it will decline. But both agree the US crop will be one of its largest in recent years.


Domestic Production


For the first time, this year’s State of the Industry report offers two different estimates of US farmed mink output, not to highlight the differences in estimates that are bound to arise, but to ensure some continuity in reporting.

Past reports have relied on data from the USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), which has conducted annual surveys of the mink farming sector since 1969.  These surveys have covered a broad range of parameters beyond a simple production total, and it remains to be seen whether the industry will conduct its own surveys in future.

According to the latest NASS report, US mink farms produced 2.82 million pelts in 2010, down 2% from 2.86 million the year before, and at the same level as 2008.

The largest crop this century was the 2.87 million pelts harvested in 2006. Between 2001 and 2010, annual output averaged 2.71 million. The 3 million mark was last achieved back in 1991. The biggest crop ever was in 1989, at 4.60 million pelts, but given that today’s farmed mink are considerably larger than just two decades ago, in terms of pelt area produced, US mink farmers are about as productive as they have ever been.

NASS does not forecast production in a current crop year, but by using data on total production that went to auction the previous spring, and on the numbers of females bred in the past and current seasons, it is possible to forecast the size of the 2011 crop.

NASS reports that the number of females bred to produce kits this year was up 5% from the previous year, at 701,000. If the same number of pelts per breeding is achieved this year as in 2010 (4.21), this will result in a total of 2.95 million pelts going to auction in 2012. This would make it the largest crop since 1997.

The second estimate of US production comes from Kopenhagen Fur, the world’s largest fur auction house and currently the only one to publish an estimate of global production.

Last year, Kopenhagen raised a few eyebrows in the North American auction houses when it estimated output by US farms at 3.4 million pelts. If one were to take NASS statistics as a reference, this would have made it the largest US crop since 1989, but by the time the 2010 crop had gone under the gavel and the auction season was over, NASS reported that 2.82 million US pelts had actually been sold.(2)

In this year’s forecast, much the same thing has happened, with Kopenhagen estimating US output at 3.2 million pelts. True, this is down 5.9% from the previous year’s estimate, but it is still larger than any harvest reported by NASS since 1991. Furthermore, Kopenhagen has not seen fit to revise its 2010 estimate downward.

Whether Kopenhagen’s estimates are more accurate than those extrapolated from NASS surveys is a matter of opinion, but in any case the question will become moot next year with the end of NASS surveys.

“Qualified U.S. sources tended to agree with Kopenhagen’s current estimate,” wrote veteran fur reporter Sandy Parker, without expanding.(3) Certainly there are a few good reasons why Kopenhagen might have a more accurate picture of US mink production than the USDA. Among these is the fact that the Danish auction house is now in the process of adding North American mink to its portfolio, and has thus been acquainting itself more closely with production across the Atlantic. It handled about 100,000 Canadian mink last season and expects to have at least 150,000 in the coming season, including US goods.


Global Production


The global supply of ranched mink headed for the current round of auctions is believed to have grown for the second year in a row. All of the top five producers monitored by Kopenhagen Fur (four countries plus one region, the Commonwealth of Independent States and Baltic States) have increased output, though these are estimates only, and Kopenhagen Fur says the Chinese estimate must be treated with particular caution.

That said, the world harvest this year is forecast at 54.13 million pelts, up 7.0% from the 50.58 million produced in 2010. This is still down a shade, however, from the all-time high of 55.79 million produced in 2007.

Output for the world’s largest producer, Denmark, is forecast at 15 million this year, up 7.1%. Forecasts f

Of particular interest this year is the continued strong growth in Europe, especially Eastern Europe, given the financial crisis and depressed economic conditions in the region.  Other major producers are: China: 13.5 million, up 17.4%; the Netherlands: 4.9 million, up 1.0%; Poland: 4.9 million, up 15.3%; CSI/Baltic States: 4.8 million, up 1.0%; the US: 3.2 million, down 5.9%; Canada: 2.4 million, up 9.1%; Finland: 1.7 million, down 12.5%; and Sweden: 1 million, unchanged. 

Denmark has broken the mold to increase output after four straight years at 14 million. Poland is also continuing its strong expansion trend which goes all the way back to 1994, when it produced just 30,000 pelts, and the end is not in sight, says Kopenhagen Fur’s manager in Poland, Olger Scheepers. “Production will probably continue to rise over the next few years, so Poland will produce about 7 million skins instead of just under 5 million pelts produced here today,” he said.(4)

Meanwhile, of perennial interest is production in China, both in terms of quantity and quality.

Just over a decade ago, in 2000, China produced some 3.3 million pelts, but although it already ranked as the world’s number two, it was far behind Denmark, with 10.9 million. It then embarked on a dramatic expansion, peaking in 2007 with an estimated output of 18 million pelts, or about one-third of world output. The following year, production plunged to about 13 million, and in 2009 slumped further to just 10 million. Inexperience in mink husbandry was blamed, and poor quality pelts and low prices were the result.

This year, however, Kopenhagen Fur believes it may have recovered to 13.5 million, but acknowledges it is really a guessing game. China does not publish official figures, and until now the majority of its pelts, being of industrial quality, have been consumed domestically rather than passing through the international auction system. The numbers, however, are so large, that considerable anxiety exists among Western producers in case the day comes when Chinese farmers challenge for the premium pelt market.


Productivity, Efficiency


Starting in the late 1980s, the number of mink farms in the US began falling sharply, but those that remained became increasingly efficient through economies of scale such as merging with other farms, and pooling resources in feed and processing cooperatives. Advances in animal husbandry resulted in higher survival rates among kits, and pelts that were both better quality and larger.

NASS data do not reflect farm mergers or changes in pelt size, but are still good indicators of the contraction and consolidation phase of the industry, and improvements in productivity.

Between 1990 and 2005, the total number of farms reporting to NASS fell from 771 to just 275. Since then, their numbers have fluctuated in a narrow range. In 2010, 265 farms reported to NASS, down from 278 the year before.

The trend in productivity over the same period has been the reverse, as opportunities for greater efficiency have become more fully exploited. In 1990, the average farm produced just 4,366 pelts. By 2000, that number had risen to 7,617. And in 2010, it stood at 10,650, up 338 pelts from the year before.

Over the most recent five-year period, 2006-2010, the number of farms fell by 5.02%, while average pelt production per farm rose 3.93%.

Another measure of productivity on mink farms is the number of pelts produced per female bred, which reflects both the number of kits born and their survival rate. Litter size, of course, is mostly governed by mink biology, while uncontrollable factors such as extreme weather impact survivability. But farmers do have control over the quality of care they give their animals, and this directly affects how many pelts they harvest.

Data compiled since 1970 by NASS and its predecessor, the Crop Reporting Board, reveal that each breeding in the 1970s resulted, on average, in 3.43 pelts going to market. In the 1980s, this average grew to 3.72. In the 1990s, it grew again to 3.80, and for the period 2000-09 it reached 4.16. The best result for a single year ever recorded was in 2006, at 4.37.

In 2010, pelts per breeding averaged 4.21, off just a shade from 4.23 the year before, but still higher than the average over the last decade.


Crop Value


US mink are once more breaking records at auction, in stark contrast to the depressed prices of just two seasons ago.

The 2007 crop earned a record $185.8 million when it went to auction in early 2008, NASS reported, but the following year’s sales were held against the backdrop of a global recession. With buyers for Russian clients nowhere to be seen, the 2008 crop sold for just $117.3 million, down 37% and the lowest since 2003.

But that didn’t last long!

Even as bad news about economies and financial systems continued to rule the airwaves, the Chinese economy rode the storm, while the luxury goods sector began to show growth totally out of synch with other manufacturing sectors.

In 2010, hungry buyers turned up for the 2009 crop, and prices regained all the ground they’d lost. US mink earned $186.6 million that year.

This year took it to the next level. When the 2010 crop came under the gavel, the offering was actually down by about 46,000 pelts from the year before. But it sold for a staggering $231.1 million – up 24%!

To give some perspective as to how US mink farmers’ fortunes have turned around, their worst earner this century was the 2002 crop, which raised just $79.8 million. The 2010 crop sold for almost three times that!

Naturally, prices per pelt have also been breaking new ground. The 2010 crop earned an average of $81.90, up from $65.10 a year earlier, and shattering the previous record of $65.70 set in 2007. Meanwhile, the average price over the five crop years 2006-10 came to $60.53, up 42.4% from the $42.51 average over the preceding five years.


International Apparel Trade – Imports


Over the last few decades, China has come to dominate world manufacturing and exportation of fur apparel. The US, in contrast, has seen its production of fur apparel reduced to a shadow of what it was forty years ago, making it a net importer by a large margin.

According to the Commerce Department’s International Trade Administration, America’s trade has been in deficit since the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the US (HTS) was launched in 1989 ($286 million). Since then, the smallest deficit for “articles of apparel etc. of furskin” (HS 4303)(5) was in 1992 ($64.5 million), and the largest in 2004 ($314.6 million).

In 2010, the deficit stood at $138.5 million, up from $114.7 million the year before.

But changes in the deficit have very little to do with changes in US production, either for the domestic market or for export. Above all, they reflect changes in imports.

In 2004, imports hit a record high of $334.1 million, and then declined for five straight years to $136.1 million in 2009. When the slide began, analysts attributed it to excess inventory built up by retailers following a string of profitable seasons, but by 2008, of course, all fingers were pointed at the recession.

In 2010, there was some recovery, to $158.2 million, with major shippers to the US being China (50.7%),(6) Canada (14.3%), and Italy (14.1%). And the upward trend has continued in 2011, with imports for the first three quarters coming to $134.9 million, up 21% from the same period a year earlier.

However, increasing imports in dollar terms do not necessarily indicate increasing consumption of fur in the US.

As Sandy Parker reported this November, wholesale prices for fur garments have risen an average of 25% this year, and while the value of non-mink apparel imports rose 32% in the first three quarters, mink imports during the same period actually shrank 4% in value.

In other words, the volume of mink garments being imported has fallen. “This marked the continuation of a pattern that started earlier this year,” wrote Parker, “as retailers sought to maintain their most popular price points in the face of rising skin costs, with mink prices reaching new heights. Although mink still dominated furriers’ sales in the upper brackets, especially in the designer-label category, a variety of other furs and combinations with other materials have been replacing mink at below the $5,000 retail level.”(7)


International Apparel Trade – Exports


US exports of fur apparel are on an altogether smaller scale than imports.

In 2010 they were worth $19.7 million, down from $21.4 million the year before. Major consumers were China (20.7%),(6) Canada (13.7%), and Japan (9.9%).

In the last two decades, exports peaked in 1997 at $94 million, and bottomed out in 2005 at just $18.8 million.

Given the comparatively small figures involved in the export trade, year-to-year changes can be pronounced without necessarily being significant. But overall, demand from the major trading partners has been in decline.

Over the five-year period 2006-2010, China’s(6) annual imports from the US averaged $4.16 million, but were slightly below average at $4.07 million in 2010. Canada’s imports averaged $3.77 million over the same period, but in 2010 came to $2.70 million. Japan’s imports averaged $3.50 million, but came to $1.96 million in 2010.


Domestic Retail


Once dominated by independently owned high-street furriers and boutiques in high-end department stores, with their racks of mink, fox, and chinchilla, the retail landscape for fur apparel in the US has been diversifying in recent years.

As mentioned above, the contents of the racks themselves are changing, as many retailers are obliged to reduce inventories of mink in favor of other fur types to keep their lower price points filled.

Furs are also now commonplace in non-specialized clothing outlets, while fur-trimmed garments and accessories can be found everywhere from sporting goods to toddler wear. Meanwhile, on-line shopping goes from strength to strength, as does growth of brand-owned stores.

Because of this diversification, estimating the size of the US fur market by tracking retail sales is harder than it once was. Import statistics are now a better guide.

Nonetheless, there is one set of industry statistics that continues to be useful, even if it represents a part of the retail sector that is no longer as dominant as it once was. These are for sales through traditional furriers with membership in the Fur Information Council of America (FICA), and include garments and accessories with any amount of fur in them, plus services such as cleaning, storage and alterations.

For 2010, FICA’s members reported sales of $1.3 billion. This represented a recovery of 3.1% from the $1.26 billion reported in 2009, the lowest level this century. The highest level was in 2005-06 (April to March), when sales reached a record $1.82 billion. (Note: In 2008, FICA switched from April to March reporting to calendar years.)

“Customers this year [2010] seemed to be looking for shorter, more fashion-oriented pieces,” said FICA chairman Andre Ferber. “We saw customers buying several pieces and we saw a greater range of customers coming through our doors. Of course, this meant higher unit sales volume … and overall we have had an increase in total sales.”

Mink was still the most popular fur among customers of FICA’s members, the survey found, accounting for about 70% of sales. Sheared mink continued to show strong growth, as did knitted fur, broadtail, fox and beaver.

As for what the current retail season (November – February) promises, one can’t escape the fact that there’s still a recession. But some indicators are positive.

Unemployment, for example, stood at 8.6% in November, the lowest in two and a half years.

Consumer spending in stores and online over the Black Friday “weekend” (actually four days) came to $52.4 billion, up 16% and a new record, according to the National Retail Federation.(8) This is “a promising sign for the economic recovery,” declared NRF president Matthew Shay. But then the same press release also cited “consumers’ voracious appetites for great deals.” Such appetites, of course, increase during the hard times, not the good ones.

Meanwhile the more circumspect Conference Board Consumer Research Center tells us that consumers’ spirits have lifted, but not much. In November, the Combined Consumer Confidence Index (CCCI; present situation + expectations) stood at 56.0 (1985=100), up from 40.9 in October, while the Present Situation Index bounced back from six straight months of decline to 38.3, up from 27.1.

To put this in perspective, the lowest the CCCI has ever gone was 25.3, in February 2009, the year US fur retail also hit bottom. Since then it has shown a recovery to as high as 70.4 in February 2011. Just this October, Conference Board director Lynn Franco described consumer confidence as being “back to levels last seen during the 2008-2009 recession.” Yet come November, her view was tempered, “Consumers appear to be entering the holiday season in better spirits, though overall readings remain historically weak.”

Another indicator of what the retail season holds in store is the weather forecast. The weather is no trump card, as December 2009 demonstrated; despite record snowfalls on several major US cities, the recession won out and fur sales fell. But all else being equal, freezing temperatures sell furs.

Unfortunately, this year Mother Nature is inspiring no more confidence than the economy. According to the National Climatic Data Center, autumn was warmer than average across the US, while 13 states in the Midwest, Mid-Atlantic, and Northeast had Novembers among their 10 warmest on record.(9) Only six states had November temperatures below average.


International Context


Despite being the world’s largest economy and an important market for fur, the US currently accounts for just 9% or so of global fur retail. Thus US mink farmers today find themselves in the same boat as farmers everywhere, with the global marketplace as the key to their prosperity.

Prior to 2008, the global market was robust and growing. Fur had been back in vogue since the turn of the century, and strong economic growth in the biggest consumers, China and Russia, saw more disposable income than ever before being spent on fur.

In 2006-07, global fur retail was valued at $15.02 billion, the highest since the International Fur Trade Federation started keeping track in 1999.

But in 2007-08, sales nosedived to $13.03 billion, since when it has bounced back somewhat, to $14.05 billion in 2009-10.

IFTF is optimistic that when its 2010-11 survey is published next March, it will show continuing growth.

“Fur is the big fashion story of the autumn/winter 2011-2012 collections,” said IFTF chairman Andy Lenhart. “Wholesale prices at the 2010-2011 winter auctions reached all-time highs so we expect an even bigger increase in global sales turnover for the current financial year.”

This optimism stems above all from continuing and strong growth in demand in one market, China. A major consumer of utilitarian fur throughout its history, China is now a major consumer of high-end fur fashion too.

Its importance to the fur trade has only been underscored by the global recession, which has affected it less than any other major economy. In 2010, China outperformed them all with GDP growth of 10.3%, and it has maintained strong growth in 2011. Indeed, it’s said that in Shanghai – a major market for luxuries all on its own – no one’s even heard of the recession!

Meanwhile, government economic policy aims to reduce dependency on exports and increase domestic consumption – another bonus for the fur trade.

The other major fur market, Russia, is in dire straits by comparison.

In the decade leading up to the global recession, soaring energy and commodity prices saw GDP grow at an annual average of 7%. Both the ranks of the extremely wealthy and of the middle class grew rapidly. Real disposable incomes doubled, and newly-affluent consumers invested in quality purchases, including furs.

Then the recession hit, the bottom dropped out of the oil market, foreign credit dried up, capital fled the country, and the government was forced to devalue the ruble. In 2009, GDP growth actually went into negative territory, shrinking by 7.9%. Buyers for Russian clients all but disappeared from the pelt auctions, and retailers found themselves with massive debts to Greek and Chinese manufacturers, and few customers.

In 2010, GDP grew again, at a modest 4%, but the economy is still sick. Government efforts to reduce the country’s dependency on energy and commodities and promote high technology have yielded few results; the Central Bank’s foreign currency reserves remain severely depleted; and just as the economy began to grow again, 2010 brought a severe drought and fires in central Russia that reduced agricultural output, saw a ban on grain exports for part of the year, and slowed growth in other sectors. The one ray of sunshine for Russia is that oil prices are up again, but inflation and increased government expenditures are limiting the positive impact of these revenues.

As if this were not a gloomy enough scenario for Russia’s fur retailers, now there’s another dark cloud in the sky.

The main suppliers for Russian retailers are Greek manufacturers, and early demand this season for mink apparel was slow, reported Sandy Parker. “It is not clear whether this is attributable to the current credit crisis in Greece that may be restricting manufacturers’ preparations, or a lack of orders from their accounts – or both,” he wrote. “There also are reports that Greek suppliers have cut back on the credit they have been extending not only to Russians but to accounts elsewhere as well. This is said to reflect not only their own credit squeeze, but also a slowdown in payments for orders already delivered.”(10)

So is it China, almost single-handed, that is shielding mink farmers from the harsh realities of the recession? No, there is another savior, one that transcends national borders, and that’s the burgeoning market for high-end, investment-quality goods, or “luxuries”.

After falling 10% at the depth of the recession, sales of luxuries recovered all this lost ground in 2010, and are expected to grow 10% more in 2011, says consulting firm Bain & Co. in its latest Luxury Goods Worldwide Market Study, published in October. Included in this highly positive appraisal is growth of 8% in the apparel sector, unchanged from last year.(11)

The return to luxury spending is “not simply a rebound,” says Bain, but “a sustained renewal of spending on luxury apparel, accessories, leather goods, shoes, jewelry, watches, perfume and cosmetics … to record-breaking sales levels.”

Among luxury’s mature markets, Bain expects 10% growth in Europe this year, 12% in the Americas, and in what it called the “biggest surprise”,(12) 5% growth in luxury’s largest market after the US, Japan, after three years of decline. Following the catastrophic earthquake and tsunami in March, “the effects on luxury sales lasted only one quarter before this year’s growth cycle restarted.”

In developing markets, China leads the pack with an astonishing forecast of 35% growth in luxury sales, followed by Brazil (20%) and the Middle East (12%). According to Bain, if China’s domestic consumption is combined with purchases by its nationals traveling abroad, Chinese people now account for just over 20% of the global market.

Luxury apparel, of course, covers a broad range of clothing materials, but mink is definitely one of them. And with mink garments having risen sharply in price and now being replaced by other fur types at the lower price points, the luxury sector will only become more important to mink farmers.

The good news is that, in China, all their stars are currently aligned. Frigid winters across much of China have always meant strong demand for fur, even if mink was only within reach of a very few. Now China is in a period of sustained and strong economic growth, and while mink will remain a dream for most for the forseeable future, a market of 1.3 billion people still has tremendous potential.

And the icing on the cake is that China is now a voracious consumer of luxury goods, which might be just what it takes to keep mink pelt prices at record highs.



(2) “US mink production dips, auction prices surge to new high.” FCUSA analysis, July 9, 2011.

(3) Sandy Parker Reports, Dec. 5, 2011.

(4) “European mink production growth in the millions.” Kopenhagen Fur press release, Nov. 23, 2011.

(5) Chapter 43 of the US Harmonized Tariff Schedule, of which HS 4303 is a part, does not include all items of fur apparel. The Fur Products Identification Act lists sheep as among the species yielding fur. However, for the purpose of the HTS, sheepskin jackets, for example, are covered by Chapter 62 (apparel articles and accessories, not knit etc.), while sheepskin boots come under Chapter 64 (footwear, gaiters etc. and parts thereof).

(6) The International Trade Administration compiles statistics separately for China and Hong Kong. Figures in this report combine the two.

(7) Sandy Parker Reports, Nov. 21, 2011.

(8) “Black Friday weekend shines as shoppers line up for deals, spend record $52 billion.” National Retail Federation press release, Nov. 27, 2011.

(9) “Autumn and November both warmer than average in the United States.” NOAA press release, Dec. 7, 2011.

(10) Sandy Parker Reports, Dec. 12, 2011.

(11) “Worldwide luxury goods market poised to surge 10% in 2011 as growth in China and mature markets increases.” Bain & Co. press release, Oct. 17, 2011.

(12) Renewed growth in Japanese luxury consumption is not so surprising if one considers that between January 2008 and October 2011, the yen appreciated 29% against the US dollar, to an all-time high.

See also:

US mink: State of the industry – 2010. By Simon Ward, Communications Director, FCUSA, Dec. 23, 2010.

US mink: State of the industry – 2009. By Simon Ward, Communications Director, FCUSA, June 23, 2009.

US Mink: State of the Industry – 2008. By Simon Ward, Communications Director, FCUSA, May 25, 2008.

US Mink: State of the Industry – 2007. By Simon Ward, Communications Director, FCUSA, Mar. 4, 2007.

China, where American mink gets glamour. Report on US-China fur ties, by the Global Agriculture Information Network (GAIN) of the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, May 16, 2007. (PDF)


For further information contact Fur Commission USA.


© 1998-2011 Fur Commission USA

Guest Opinion: Animal rights activists often go too far

Dec 09, 2011 No Comments

Americans love animals. We keep more pets than any country in the world, and we treat them like family: celebrating their birthdays, including them in vacation plans, even hanging stockings for them at Christmas. 


Nov 30, 2011 No Comments


Below you will find a selection of key documents relating to natural resource issues, and in particular wildlife. They are categorized according to the issue and geographical area to which they primarily refer.

Animal Rights
Animal Rights / Eco-Terrorism
Conservation / Sustainable Use (General)
Conservation / Sustainable Use (Marine)
Conservation / Sustainable Use (Terrestrial)
Diet (Vegetarianism / Meat-Eating)
Rules and Regulations: Labeling
Rules and Regulations: Water



Saving the planet with … plush toys? FCUSA commentary. (Nov. 30, 2010)

Fur: It’s only cruel to waste. By Julia Baum, The State Hornet (California State University, Sacramento); Feb. 17, 2010.

The plight of the green fashionista. By Joanna Weiss, Boston Globe; Dec. 19, 2009.

European politicians are breathtakingly hypocritical about sealskins. The Economist (UK). (May 14, 2009)

Fur and against. Liz Hurley is back in the headlines for advertising it. But fur is part of our heritage. Sunday Times (UK). (Dec. 7, 2008)

Making the case that wearing fur can be eco-friendly. By Hollie Shaw, Calgary Herald. (Dec. 5, 2008)

Can fur be sold as eco-friendly? Portlander to find out. By Scott Learn, The Oregonian. (Sept. 18, 2008)

Can wearing fur be guilt-free? By Sanjida O’Connell, The Independent (UK). (Sept. 18, 2008)

Designer Mariouche turns controversial fur green. By Delia Montgomery, for Green Options Media. (Aug. 30, 2008)

Fur: sustainable resource or fashion faux pas? CBC News. (Mar. 20, 2008)

Plastic bags on our backs. FCUSA commentary. (Mar. 14, 2008)

Can you wear fur with a clear conscience? By Stephanie Rafanelli, Daily Mail (UK). (Feb. 18, 2008)

Climate change cure is warm and fuzzy. By Janet Albrechtsen, The Australian. (Jan. 9, 2008)

Why do I love my fur coat? Let me count the ways. By Teresa Platt, executive director, FCUSA. (Dec. 21, 2007)

In defense of fur coats. By Betsy Hart, Scripps Howard News Service. (Dec. 13, 2007)

Eco-indulgence. Green luxury products for the trust fund tree-hugger. By Shana Ting Lipton, Radar. (July 2007)

China, where American mink gets glamour. Report on US-China fur ties, by the Global Agriculture Information Network (GAIN) of the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, May 16, 2007. (PDF)

I’d rather wear fur than go naked. What really lies under the skin of today’s anti-fur hysteria is a discomfort with man’s domination of nature and beast. By Brendan O’Neill, The Guardian, UK. (Mar. 19, 2007)

The skin trade war. By Karen Mazurkewich, Globe and Mail, Canada. (Mar. 17, 2007)

Why Blackglama mink coats are considered the best fur coats available. By Gregg Hall,

What’s all the fuzz about? Status, of course. By Robin Givhan, Washington Post. (Mar. 16, 2007)

Moscow cool to anti-fur plea. Animal rights group speaks of cruelty; wearers point to temperature. By Michael Mainville, San Francisco Chronicle. (Feb. 11, 2007)

Fur sales reflect culture change. Cool fashion in cold weather. IWMC World Conservation Trust. (November 2006)

Are we gradually warming to fur? By Vanessa Friedman, The Financial Times. (Nov. 17, 2006; Outside link.)

In Defence of Fur. Ignore the protests of naked celebs: fashion is the best possible use of animals’ skins. By Josie Appleton, The Manifesto Club. (Sept. 28, 2006)

Replica clothes pass Everest test. Natural fiber clothing of 1924 expedition vs. modern synthetics. BBC News. (June 13, 2006)

The return of fur. By Eugene LaPointe, president, IWMC World Conservation Trust. (February 2006)

The return of the fur coat: A commodity chain perspective. By Lise Skov, Current Sociology, Vol. 53, No. 1, 9-32. (2005; PDF format)

Should You Be Faking It? Are you wearing fake fur and feeling just a tiny bit smug? By Sue Reid, Daily Mail, UK. (November 2004)

Why This Bunny Will Wear Fur Again. By Jane Chastain for WorldNetDaily. (Dec. 4, 2003)

New Styles, Old Fibers Environmental fashion consultant Delia Montgomery explores some exciting new fiber crafts, such as fox wool and fur-and-cotton yarn. (February 2001)

Fur Ethics Environmental fashion consultant Delia Montgomery interviews renowned Illinois fur farmer Larry Frye. (November 2001)

An American Fur Farmer in Russia FCUSA president Paul Westwood recalls a memorable trip to Moscow. (November 2001)

Fur Facts (HTML version; PDF version). Produced by Fur Commission USA. (September 1998)

The Law & British Farmed Mink. Briefing document produced by the British Fur Council.

Producers, Consumers and Clothing Confusion Is mink fur really any different from sheepskin? Is its production really separate from the human food chain? FCUSA commentary. (December 2000)

A Day at the Races : The Fur Trade Is So Far Ahead of Politically Correct, Others Are Racing Just to Keep Up FCUSA commentary. (July 2000)

Fur and Freedom: In Defence of the Fur Trade By Richard North. IEA Studies on the Environment No. 16, published by the Environment Unit, The Institute of Economic Affairs, London. Outside link, PDF format. (January 2000)

New Zealand

Money grows on trees in New Zealand. Cozying up to eco-friendly fur. By Chrys Hutchings, for PERC Reports. (Outside link to Man In Nature; December 2008)

Alien Invasion: How the possum became public enemy No 1. By Kathy Marks, The Independent (UK). (Outside link; Dec. 27, 2006)

The pernicious possum. By Glynis Poad, Wild Fibers Magazine. (Outside link; 2004)

Fur Fashion to the Rescue : Trapping Eases New Zealand’s Plague of Possums. By Hattie Klotz for the Ottawa Citizen. Reproduced with permission. (March 2001)

North America

Mink Farming in the USA Four-page leaflet produced by FCUSA.(PDF format)

Saving the planet with … plush toys? FCUSA commentary. (Nov. 30, 2010)

Environmental advocates promote nutria fur as a fashionable way to help protect the wetlands. By Susan Langenhennig, The Times-Picayune (New Orleans). (Jan. 18, 2010)

Sustaining the Wild. The business of trapping fur in Quebec’s woodlands. By Jennifer Freitas, The Link (Concordia University, Quebec). (Mar. 4, 2009; outside link to Man In Nature)

Minks give their all fur Wisconsin ranchers. By Meg Jones, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. (Feb. 21, 2009)

Hair of the dog that licked you; Fur isn’t cruel if it comes from Fido’s coat. By Erin Kobayashi, Toronto Star. (Feb. 6, 2009)

Attacks on fur industry misguided and misleading. By David Kriegsman, furrier, for the Asheville Citizen-Times (N. Carolina). (Aug. 22, 2008)

Cuddle up this winter with Wisconsin mink. By Jill Makovec, Alice in Dairyland, for AgriView. (Jan. 10, 2008)

Studio NAFA: Aiming at creative cooperation with fashion. interview with Studio NAFA executive director Tina Jagros. Outside link. (Oct. 15, 2007)

Bountiful, beautiful fur. National Post overview of Canada’s fur trade. Outside link. (Oct. 15, 2007)

Bright young talents bode well for the future of fur. Fur World. (July 16, 2007)

World fur demand good for trappers. The Chronotype, Rice Lake, Wisconsin. Outside link. (Apr. 30, 2007)

Sold Out: Love and death in the fur industry. By Marjorie Skinner, The Portland Mercury, Oregon. Outside link. (Mar. 8, 2007)

The Fur Trade. Competing buyers operate in a volatile market. By Melodie Wright, Anchorage Daily News, Alaska. Outside link. (Jan. 17, 2007)

Have Yourself a Furry Little Christmas! By Jane Chastain for WorldNetDaily. Outside link. (Dec. 8, 2005)

The View from a Utah Mink Ranch. By John Adkins Jr., Black Willow¨ Mink. (Nov. 21, 2005)

It’s Safe to Wear Fur Once More : Animal-rights folk have lost the ability to intimidate. By Sondra Gotlieb for the National Post, Canada. Reproduced with permission. (February 2004)

Trapping : A Romantic Way to Make a Living. By Robert Sopuck, Delta Waterfowl Foundation, for the Winnipeg Free Press. Reproduced with permission. (February 2004)

Fur Fervor Commentary from the Salt Lake Tribune, reproduced with permission. (February 2003)

“Democratization” of Fur Fur World magazine interviews Alan Herscovici, executive vice president of the Fur Council of Canada. (April 2002)

Boom in Fur Sales Boost Demand, Prices for Wild Game Pelts Anchorage Daily News report. (December 2002)

Make Mine Mink Oregon Fur Breeders Association president Joe Ruef responds in The Oregonian to an opinion piece by Scott Beckstead, president of the Central Coast Humane Society. (December 2001)

Thank You Mr. Sevin, Sir; Memories of a Bayou Trapper and Otter Conservationist By Tom Krause, editor, The American Trapper. Reproduced with permission. (May 2001)

Goodbye Plastic People, Hello “Wear Your Fur Friday” FCUSA commentary on Thanksgiving and “Fur Free Friday” in the U.S. (November 2000)

Making A Living Out of Mink By Baird Helgeson for the Post Bulletin, Rochester, Minnesota. (February, 2000)

Despite Controversy, Fur Farming Rather Mundane By Baird Helgeson for the Post Bulletin, Rochester, Minnesota. (February, 2000)

Plains Folk: Muskrats and Mink Memories of trapping in North Dakota. By Prof. Tom Isern, North Dakota State University. (April 1998)

Winter Time Essay by second-generation fur farmer and high school junior Cristina.

Animal Rights


Animal-rights terrorists take away our right to life and liberty. By Edwin Locke, Daily News (Los Angeles). (Apr. 30, 2009)

They don’t test on animals for no reason. Those who view human life as paramount should at least listen to the argument for vivisection. By Brenda Power, Sunday Times. (Oct. 12, 2008)

Media wary of latest shock video. FCUSA commentary on film of alleged Chinese fur farming. (May 2005)

The Green Beast Is Out of Control: In campaigning for animal rights, some activists have lost respect for humanity. By Miranda Devine for the Sydney Morning Herald. Outside link to Man In Nature. (Dec. 2, 2004)

Why This Bunny Will Wear Fur Again. By Jane Chastain for WorldNetDaily. (Dec. 4, 2003; outside link)

Feminism and Fur Teresa Platt, Executive Director, FCUSA, examines the ways in which People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals demeans women and others. (March 2003)

A Whacked-Out World Where Animals Have Legal Standing By Dan Murphy, editor, Meat Marketing & Technology magazine. Outside link to Man In Nature. (Sept. 20, 2002)

The Line that Divides Human from Animal Writer and critic Robin Dougherty interviews animal rights lawyer and author Steven Wise for the Boston Globe. (May 26, 2002)

Fur Ethics. Environmental fashion consultant Delia Montgomery interviews renowned Illinois fur farmer Larry Frye. (November 2001)

Let Them Eat Cake! PeTA Sees Hoof-and-Mouth Disease as the Final Solution. By Teresa Platt, Executive Director, FCUSA. (April 2001)

Animal Rights and Catholicism. By Dr. James Beers, biologist (retired), US Fish & Wildlife Service. Outside link. (January 2001)

The Illogic of Animal Rights and Fifty Things Animals Can’t Do. A pair of essays by award-winning author and founder of the first company to distribute paperless books electronically, J. Neil Schulman. Outside links to Man In Nature. (1995, 2000)

Jesus Was an Omnivore, God the Father Was a Furrier. Response to PeTA’s “Jesus Was A Vegetarian” campaign. FCUSA commentary. (Nov. 30, 1999)

Fur Is Natural … and Environmentally Sound. A letter from fourth-generation furrier Mark Schumacher to a sixth-grade student interested in starting an animal rights club. (Posted here Oct. 7, 1999)

“Ho, ho, ho! Plastic Santas?” A seasonal look at “Evolutionary Fur” – guaranteed 100% unnatural! By Teresa Platt, Executive Director, FCUSA.

Saving Society from Animal Snuff Films. By Teresa Platt, Executive Director, FCUSA, and Simon Ward. (November 2002)

North America

Animal rights activist: “If you spill blood, your blood should be spilled.” By Leah Nelson, Southern Poverty Law Center. (Nov. 3, 2011)

Animal rights is wrong. By Loretta Baughan, Spaniel Journal. (August 2009)

The Three R’s of the HSUS Agenda. By Susan Crowell, Farm and Dairy magazine. (Apr. 2, 2009)

Bookshelf : The animal research war. FCUSA guest commentary, by P. Michael Conn and James V. Parker. (Sept. 15, 2008)

Animal liberation is not lethal? May the myth rest in peace. FCUSA commentary. (Sept. 1, 2008)

Is Amanda Beard an animal rights hypocrite? PeTA’s gold medalist celeb endorser may hate fur, but as of last year, she loved leather. By Cameron Bird, Orange County Register. (Aug. 6, 2008)

The perfect storm: 18 months of protests, harassment result in furrier forced to pay legal fees for animal rights groups. FCUSA commentary. (Apr. 15, 2008)

Pity PeTA: Ingrid Newkirk’s views on life after death. Body to be chopped for cheap publicity. FCUSA commentary. (Nov. 22, 2007)

California Focus: The new animal-rights battleground. Proposed ballot measure latest step to end animal agriculture. By David Martosko, Center for Consumer Freedom, for the Orange County Register, California. (Oct. 16, 2007)

On the edge of common sense: Animal caregivers vs. animal activists. By Baxter Black, Amarillo Globe News, Texas. (Oct. 13, 2007)

Critic speaks against HSUS. Patti Strand, director of the National Animal Interest Alliance, on the agenda and modus operandi of the Humane Society of the United States, Long Beach Press-Telegram, California. (Oct. 14, 2007)

Duking it out at Duke University. FCUSA’s executive director Teresa Platt reports on “simplistic” and “irritating” Animal Law Conference. (May 8, 2006)

Dead wrong baby; Animal-rights movement hits new low, editorial by Brian Jones, The Telegraph, St. John’s, Newfoundland. Reproduced with permission. (Dec. 9, 2005)

PeTA’s Non-Apology Apology: The group still equates animal killings to the Holocaust, by Wesley J. Smith, Discovery Institute. Outside link to Man In Nature. (May 6, 2005)

Muddle-Headed Philosophers : When Animal Rightists Deal in “Murder”. FCUSA commentary on PeTA’s fur recycling program. (Apr. 6, 2004)

PETA’s War on the World’s Dispossessed Rich Lowry, editor of National Review, considers the damage done by fur opponents to the sealers of Canada. (Feb. 7, 2003)

No Ethics in Hampering Training of Veterinarians By Prof. Robert Speth of the College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University. Outside link to Man In Nature. (July 28, 2002)

PeTA’s Zeal Pushes the Envelope Too Far for Some By Virginian-Pilot columnist Bill Sizemore, reproduced with permission. (Dec. 3, 2000)

Trappers Are Ones in Box By Times Union (Albany, NY) columnist Fred LeBrun, reproduced with permission. (Feb. 2, 1999)

Animal Rights and Wrongs. By Edwin Feulner, president, The Heritage Foundation. (November 1998)

Should Conflict Generation Be Rewarded by Non-Profit Benefits? Teresa Platt of FCUSA takes a look at the activites of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society. (November 1997)

Out Of The Mouths Of ‘Babe’ Comes The Awful Truth About Humanity / Out Of The Mouths Of Editors Come Awful Opinions About Humanity. Santa Barbara News-PressÊEditor John Lankford and FCUSA Executive Director Teresa Platt debate the message conveyed by a talking pig. (March 1996)

The Rise & Fall of Animal Rights: Holding Activists Accountable. By Alan Herscovici, author of “Second Nature: The Animal-Rights Controversy” and chair of the Canadian Fur Industry Adjustment Committee, which brought together Cree trappers, designers, and other sectors of the fur trade to encourage strategic planning for international competitiveness. (1998) Outside link to Man In Nature.

The Trojan Horse of Animal Protectionism: The Battle Over Curriculum. By Patrick Cleveland, Ph.D., president, Coalition for Animals and Animal Research / San Diego. Commentary on attempts by animal rights groups, and in particular the Humane Society of the US, to control the minds of school children. (1994) Outside link to Man In Nature.

United Kingdom

A Domino Too Far; UK Government Tells Animal Rightists “Enough Is Enough” Commentary on fur farming ban, fox hunting, and campaign against Huntingdon Life Sciences. By Simon Ward. Outside link to Man In Nature. (April 2001)

Animal Rights / Eco-Terrorism


Animal-rights terrorists take away our right to life and liberty. By Edwin Locke, Daily News (Los Angeles). (Apr. 30, 2009)

Animal liberation is not lethal? May the myth rest in peace. FCUSA commentary. (Sept. 1, 2008)

North America

Researchers to animal-rights activists: We’re not afraid. By Thomas Watkins, CNN. (Oct. 9, 2009; Outside link)

Enough is enough. By Drs. Dario Ringach and J. David Jentsch, letter to the editor, Journal of Neurophysiology. (September 2009)

An unmarked anniversary: A dozen years on HSUS’s payroll. FCUSA commentary on the career of J.P. Goodwin. (June 2009)

Eco-terrorism and slain heroes. By Bruce Walker, for Web Commentary. (June 2007; Outside link)

Beauty and the beasts : Celebrities back Peta, the leading animal rights charity, and it has millions in its coffers. But some of the cash that flows out goes to groups which have links to extremists. The Observer (UK). (August 2004; Outside link)

Turning adversity around; Eco-terror target turns political activist. By Kate Roesler for the Snohomish County (Washington) Farm Bureau News Letter. Reproduced with permission. (March 2004)

Eco-Terrorists Stepping Up Attacks Across America. Heartland Institute commentary, reproduced with permission. (November 2003)

Money Talks in San Diego Blaze. FCUSA commentary on the importance for fur farmers of an ELF arson. (August 2003)

Planned Parenthood Win Landmark Free Speech Case; What’s In It for the Rest of Us? FCUSA’s Simon Ward analyzes the relevance of the Nuremberg Files ruling for others, including animal users. (August 2003)

A Diarist of Animal Rights Crimes : The Respectable Face Behind “Bite Back”. FCUSA’s Teresa Platt investigates the career of Palm Beach cultural communicator Nicolas Atwood. (August 2003)

Deductions for Destruction Greg Yardley of FrontPage Magazine questions the right of many American charities to tax-exempt status. (August 2003)

Stopping Activist Gangsters, by Kerri Houston for (June 18, 2003; outside link)

The Environmental Left: Breaking the Law in the Name of Charity, by George Landrith, President, Frontiers of Freedom Institute. Also available in PDF format. (May 2003)

Why So Much Violence for Animals? By David Martosko, Center for Consumer Freedom. (Nov. 18, 2002; Outside link to Man In Nature)

From Push to Shove : Radical environmental and animal-rights groups have always drawn the line at targeting humans. Not anymore The Southern Poverty Law Center reports on the growing scourge of eco-terrorism in North America. Also available in PDF format. (Fall 2002)

PATRIOT: Too Far or Not Far Enough? FCUSA commentary on the USA PATRIOT Act. (Nov. 15, 2001)

Public Must Take A Stand Against Animal Rights Activists By Aaron Putze, Director of Public Relations, Iowa Farm Bureau. Reproduced with permission. (Nov. 3, 2001)

Media Links September 11 with Ecoterror FCUSA commentary on the similarities between international and domestic terrorism. (Oct. 17, 2001)

There Are Animal Rights Terrorists, Too Commentary on ecoterrorism from the Star Tribune (Minneapolis), reproduced with permission. (Oct. 7, 2001)

Use Activism, Not Vandalism, to Aid Environment Newsday (New York) editorial, reproduced with permission. (Sept. 7, 2001)

War in the Woods By Bill Pickell, Washington Contract Loggers Association, reproduced with permission. (Aug. 26, 2001)

Careers in the Conflict Industry : HSUS and the Making of a Conflict Industrialist FCUSA commentary on the career of JP Goodwin. (August 2001)

Harvard and the Making of the Unabomber By Alston Chase, author of Playing God in Yellowstone (1986) and In a Dark Wood (1995). Outside link to the Atlantic Monthly. (June 2000)

Animal Enterprise Protection Act : A Scientist’s Perspective By Edward Walsh, PhD. First published in Lab Animal. Outside link. (February 2000)

Biotech Crop Killers By Michael Fumento of the Hudson Institute, Indianapolis, reproduced with permission. (Jan. 12, 2000)

A Changing Public : Animal Rights Extremist Groups Influence Public Opinion in Ways that Threaten Responsible Dog Fanciers From the AKCGazette, published by the American Kennel Club, reproduced with permission. (October 1999)

Report to Congress on the Extent and Effects of Domestic and International Terrorism on Animal Enterprises. Prepared by the Department of Justice.

The Oregonian reports by Bryan Denson and James Long (September 1999):

Animal Rights Activists Have Lost Perspective Commentary from the Calgary Herald, reproduced with permission. (July 15, 1999)

Congressional Testimony of FCUSA Executive Director Teresa Platt to the Committee on Resources, Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health, Oversight Hearing on “Public and Private Resource Management And Protection Issues in the National Forest Systems” with particular reference to animal rights terrorism and eco-terrorism; May, 1999.

Will Radicals Rule and Humans Suffer? Commentary by Cal Thomas, Los Angeles Times Syndication, on animal rights-related terrorism. Outside link. (June 1997)

United Kingdom

No wonder they get away with it: There aren’t many brownie points to be earned by ambitious law-enforcers or politicians in protecting the rights of people breeding animals for experiments, by Nigel Hasitlow for the Express & Star (UK), Oct. 19, 2004.

Conservation / Sustainable Use (General)


Dominion and Stewardship: Believers and the Environment. “A welcome development of the past thirty years has been the emergence of less-utilitarian attitudes towards the environment by believers and non-believers alike,” writes Dr. Gregg of Michigan’s Acton Institute. “No longer do serious Christians, Jews or Muslims cite Scripture to legitimize the wanton destruction or misuse of the world that God sculpted out of nothingness.” Outside link to Man In Nature. (2004)

The Pros and Cons of Modern Farming By Indur Goklany, Julian Simon Fellow at the Bozeman, Montana-based Political Economy Research Center. (2001)

Interview with Prof. Marshall Murphree In the last two decades, sustainable use has evolved from being a marginal philosophy to a mainstream tool, both for human development and for conservation, and in the process has brought these related fields closer together than ever. No one has done more to bring about this transformation than Prof. Murphree. In 1994, Murphree became the inaugural chair of the Sustainable Use Specialist Group of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Outside link to Man In Nature. (1998)

CITES: Authority Without Accountability or Responsibility By Dr. Jon Hutton, Africa Resources Trust. Outside link to Man In Nature. (1997)


Animals, People and Politics Dr. Grahame Webb, vice-chair of the IUCN Crocodile Specialist Group and chair of the Australia New Zealand Sustainable Use Specialist Group, says the time has come for Australia’s conservationists to be politically bold and capitalise upon wildlife’s economic value. Outside link to Man In Nature. (1998)

North America

“Environment Inc.”, a five-part series by Tom Knudson of the Sacramento Bee. Part 1: Fat of the Land; Movement’s Prosperity Comes at a High Price A century after John Muir served as the Sierra Club’s first president, environmental groups have successfully traded on his legacy, becoming bigger and richer than ever before. But in their quest for power and money, have they cashed in their tradition? Part 2: Green Machine; Mission Adrift in a Frenzy of Fund-Raising When you give $20 to an environmental organization, you expect it to go toward protecting the environment. But creative accounting hides the myriad ways groups can fold a hefty chunk of that donation back into their fund raising and bureaucracy. Part 3: Litigation Central; A Flood of Costly Lawsuits Raises Questions About Motive Suing the government has long been one of the environmental movement’s most important tools. But today, the targets and proliferation of environmental lawsuits are yielding an uncertain bounty for the land. Part 4: Playing With Fire; Spin on Science Puts National Treasure at Risk Scientists say Western forests are gigantic tinderboxes inviting disaster, badly in need of thinning. But many environmental organizations are ignoring – and sometimes manipulating — that message. Part 5: Seeds of Change; Solutions Sprouting from Grass-Roots Efforts A new kind of conservation is blossoming at the grass roots that focuses on results, not rhetoric. Its goals include buying, protecting and restoring land, and making commerce and conservation work together – without crying wolf. Outside links to the Sacramento Bee. (Apr. 22-26, 2001)

Coming to Terms with the Arctic. By Lisa Mastny. By melding ancient hunting traditions with modern political technique, Arctic indigenous peoples present a baffling challenge to environmental diplomacy. As the Arctic ecology itself begins to change, the need for a common understanding is growing increasingly urgent. This article first appeared in the January/February 2000 edition of “World Watch”, published by the World Watch Institute, and is distributed by FCUSA with permission. (January 2000; PDF format)

Management by Majority. Who should decide if trapping should be banned – the public or wildlife professionals By Ted Williams, former information officer with the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. (June 1999)

Rush [Limbaugh] Could Be Right : Teaching Both Sides of Environmental Issues By Dr. Jack Stauder, Professor of Sociology/Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth. Outside link to Ecotopics International News Service.

Am I My Brother’s Keeper? We are not alone in our struggle to make sense of resource policies, say FCUSA’s Teresa Platt and Rita Carlson, Alliance for America’s Vice President for Natural Resources and Public Lands. (January 1998)

The Big Picture : Life Cycle Analysis Paper by Rob Goldberg, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. (May 1992)

Conservation / Sustainable Use (Marine)


Flouting the Convention : The ongoing campaign to ban all commercial whaling is driven by politics rather than science, and is setting a terrible precedent
Aron , William, William Burke and Milton Freeman (1999)
Aron is an affiliate professor at the Univ. of Washington and former director of the Alaska Fisheries Science Center. Burke is a professor of law and of marine affairs at the Univ. of Washington. Freeman is a professor of anthropology at the Univ. of Alberta. Direct link to The Atlantic Monthly, May 1, 1999.

World’s Whaling Communities Unite to Assert Their Rights. World Council of Whalers holds first General Assembly. (March 1998)

Marine Stewardship Council Review of this important international certification and labeling initiative from WWF and Unilever, February 1998, with background information on the Forestry Stewardship Council and the “dolphin safe” Congressionally mandated “eco”-label. (PDF format)

A Tuna Tale : Managing A Fishery to Increase Positives, Reduce Negatives By Teresa Platt, formerly of the San Diego-based Fishermen’s Coalition. Outside link to Man In Nature. (April 1996)


A Message from the People of Taiji, Japan. Taiji is one of four traditional whaling communities in Japan which have repeatedly been denied a quota of minke whales by the International Whaling Commission. (May 1994)

North Atlantic

How Can Anyone Kill a Seal? How Can Anyone Possibly Kill a Whale? “These are natural questions from people who have spent their lives in populous western cities. To the peoples from northern regions, these questions provoke no more concern than the question, ‘How can anyone ever kill a pig or a cow?’” Statement from the West Nordic Council to mark its theme for 2001, “West Nordic Hunting Culture”. Outside link to “Man In Nature”. (Apr. 27, 2001)

Greenland Pushing for Seal Fur Exports; Environmentalists Maintain Opposition. By Lucy Jones, for the Dallas Morning News. (Dec. 22, 1999)

The Whaling Argument : Explore the Green Route! An interactive web page from the High North Alliance. Loads of fun, but educational too!

North America

What Motivates Seal Hunt Protest Groups? By Myles Higgins, first published by Canada Free Press. (September 2005) Outside link to Man In Nature.

Alliance for America resolution calling for the amendment of the MMPA (May 2001)

The Effects on Inuit Towards Marine Mammal Protection Act Speech presented by Theresie Tungilik, Senior Advisor Arts Economy, Department of Sustainable Development, Government of Nunavut. Outside link to the Alliance for America. (May 2001)

The PR Problems of Canada’s “Other” Seal Hunt : The Inuit, who depend on seals for food, seek a market for the skins By Ruth Walker. Outside link to the Christian Science Monitor, with permission. (May 2000)

Canadian Law-Makers Hear World Council of Whalers Message; Does Paul Watson? By David Hicks, for the World Council of Whalers. (December 1999)

The Strange Politics of the Marine Mammal Protection Act By Okalik Eegeesiak, President, Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, and Sheila Watt-Cloutier, President, Inuit Circumpolar Conference, Canada. (July 1999)

The Tuna-Dolphin Controversy By Michael Scott, senior scientist with the Dolphin Programme of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission. (August 1998) Outside link to Man In Nature.

Activists Take Aim at Canadian Seal Hunt By Norma Bennett Woolf, National Animal Interest Alliance. Direct link to NAIA. (1999)

Totems, Taboos, Sacred Cows and Tunafish. Teresa Platt of FCUSA, and founder of the Fishermen’s Coalition, explains how misguided “conservationists” almost destroyed the US tuna fleet. (December 1997)

The Meter Is Running : “Turtle Safe” Meets WTO By Teresa Platt, formerly of the San Diego-based Fishermen’s Coalition. (June 1997)

Conservation / Sustainable Use (Terrestrial)


Where’s the Green Steel? Greens Don’t See the Forest for the Trees By Patrick Moore, co-founder of Greenpeace. (March 2002; Outside link to Man In Nature)


Conservation and Local Control: The Front Lines Move to Africa. Why do animal rightists want to derail Zimbabwe’s CAMPFIRE program? Teresa Platt (FCUSA), Patti Strand (National Animal Interest Alliance) and Bruce Vincent (Alliance for America) explain. (February 1997)

Calvinism Minus God, by Prof. Robert Nelson, Univ. of Maryland. US conservationists could learn much from Africa. Direct link to Forbes Magazine with permission.

Eco-colonialism: An Opinion from Sub-Saharan Africa. By Douglas Crowe and Jeff Shryer, Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Gaborone, Botswana.

North America

Collaborative Stewardship: A New Environmental Ethic for the West Lecture presented at the University of California, Berkeley, by Mark Rey, Subcommittee on Forests and Public Land Management, Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Outside link. (October 2000)

The American Conservation Ethic. An inspirational summation of why the American people have what it takes to conserve their cherished environment. Direct link to the National Wilderness Institute. (1996)

Diet (Vegetarianism / Meat-Eating)

The Three R’s of the HSUS Agenda. By Susan Crowell, Farm and Dairy magazine. (Apr. 2, 2009)

Tofu Turkey Won’t Fly: Benefits of meat diet are well-documented – so go ahead and chew the fat. By Dennis T. Avery, Director of Global Food Issues, Hudson Institute of Indianapolis. (Dec. 24, 1999)


North America

Hug a Logger, Not a Tree Wall Street Journal interviews logger Bruce Vincent. (May 23, 2002; Outside link to Man In Nature)

The Fight Over Forests and How to Resolve It. By Dr. Alston Chase. Direct link to Forest Industry Lecture Series No. 39, presented by the Dept. of Renewable Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry, and Home Economics, University of Alberta. (October 1997)



They’re Serving Up a Pastoral Fantasy; But Small Farms Aren’t the Answer to Every Agricultural Crisis Author and farmer Stephen Budiansky draws a lesson from the latest foot-and-mouth outbreak. Outside link to Man In Nature. (April 2001)

One-Third of Farm Animal Breeds Face Extinction Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations press release. (December 2000)

North America

USDA bets the farm on animal ID program (National Animal Identification System). By David Gumpert and William Pentland, The Nation. (Dec. 14, 2007; Outside link)

Scary stuff or government pipe-dream? National Animal Identification System. By FCUSA Executive Director Teresa Platt. (Sept. 20, 2006)

A revolt against EPA water quality rules; States, courts and Congress claim the EPA lacks the detailed water quality data to set water quality regulations By Dennis Avery, Director of Global Food Issues, Hudson Institute. (July 2001)

CWAP Tsunamis : Farmers Work Hard So They Won’t Get Swept Away By FCUSA Executive Director Teresa Platt. (June 23, 2000)

EPA Targets Cows … and You? Agency Seeks to Extend Its Authority Over Non-Point Source Pollution By FCUSA Executive Director Teresa Platt. (May 30, 2000)

Is Piglet Poisoning the Well? The Sierra Club’s Vision of Small, Tidy Hog Farms Is Sweet but Untrue By Dennis Avery, Director of Global Food Issues, Hudson Institute. (Outside link to the Hudson Institute)

Rules & Regulations : Labeling


International Working Group on Global Organic Textile Standard.

Origin Assured (Information on the OA label launched by four auction houses and the International Fur Trade Federation)

North America

Fur Products Labeling Act (US).

How to Comply with the Fur Products Labeling Act Federal Trade Commission alert, February 1999.

Rules and Regulations Under the Fur Products Identification Act Federal Trade Commission Code of Federal Regulations, Title 16, Part 301. Effective Mar. 16, 1998. (Direct link to FTC)

Delaware: Section 1, Chapter 25, Title 6 of the Delaware Code, related to Prohibited Trade Practices, establishes labeling requirements for the sale of apparel containing fur. Effective June 1, 2010, this law will ensure consumers are advised, prior to purchase, that apparel contains real fur. The required labeling applies regardless of the price or value of the fur in the garment.

New York: Amendment to general business law, S 399-AAA: Selling and manufacturing of fur-bearing articles of cloth. Covers the labeling of real fur and faux fur.ÊAll garments made of fur, whether natural or imitation, and regardless of price or value, must state on the label that the product contains either real or faux fur. Effective since 2007.

Federal Trade Commission, 16 CFR Part 24, Guides for Select Leather and Imitation Leather Products Effective Dec. 2, 1996.

“Green Guides”

US Code : Title 15, Section 2055 on disclosure requirements for manufacturers and private labelers. (Direct link to the Legal Information Institute)

USDA National Organic Program The NOP’s responsibilities include the development and implementation of standards in the US that govern the marketing of agricultural products as organically produced.

Outrage hits “naturally raised” USDA meat labeling plan. Des Moines Register, Mar. 22, 2008.

Organic Trade Association’s Fiber Processing Standards. Outside link.

Talking to the consumer: Labeling ourselves or clear communication? By Teresa Platt, executive director, Fur Commission USA. (Apr. 10, 2005)

HSUS pitches “eco-label” for farm animals. Which comes first? The chicken, the egg, the pork, or HSUS? By Teresa Platt, executive director, Fur Commission USA. (June 22, 2003)

The Meter Is Running : “Turtle Safe” Meets WTO By Teresa Platt, formerly of the San Diego-based Fishermen’s Coalition. (June 1997)


Marine Stewardship Council Review of this important international certification and labeling initiative from WWF and Unilever, February 1998 (with background information on the Forestry Stewardship Council and the “dolphin safe” Congressionally mandated “eco”-label). (PDF format)

Rules and Regulations: Water

North America

U.S. Clean Water Act (Legal Information Institute)

U.S. Clean Water Act (Wikipedia)

National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Writers’ Manual. Published by the Environmental Protection Agency, 2010. “Its primary purpose as a technical resource is to guide new state and EPA permit writers through the basic steps of permit development and issuance; however, the manual also is intended to serve as a resource for others (e.g., stakeholders, the regulated community) interested in the NPDES permitting process.”

EPA to assist livestock operators to prevent water pollution discharges and reduce air emissions. Environmental Protection Agency press release. (Oct. 15, 2007)

Unified National Strategy for Animal Feeding Operations. Produced by US Department of Agriculture and US Environmental Protection Agency. (1999)

Getting started with TMDLs. Primer by Dr. Wesley Jarrell, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, to the science, policy and societal elements of Total Maximum Daily Loading. (PDF format)

Pollution prevention, water quality and mink farming. Special to FCUSA by Sigma Environmental Services, Inc., Milwaukee. (April 2008)

Bringing water saving interventions to the food industry. Water Management Resources, O’Fallon, IL.

Utah Division of Water Rights, appropriation policy and rules.

Grants and funds

EPA clean water financing. Environmental Protection Agency.

Clean water: How states allocate revolving loan funds and measure their benefits. Report by US Government Accountability Office to Subcommittee on Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies, Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives. (June 2006; PDF format)

State implementation of the Clean Water Act’s Total Maximum Daily Loads program. Western Governors’ Association and Western States Water Council symposium. (Dec. 11, 2002)

Manure and nutrient management plans

Farmer Frans Fur Farm. An Excel spreadsheet aid in planning animal waste management systems. Designed by engineer Bruce Wilson for the Oregon Agriculture Department, 2006.

Being proactive about nutrient management, and To permit or not to permit: That is the question. Special feature on nutrient management, Fur Farm Letter, spring 2009 issue.

Maine Compost School, including presentations to the National Carcass Disposal Symposium, 2006.

Achieving economic and environmental benefit through agricultural and municipal cooperation in co-composting green waste with animal manure. 2003 OSWER Innovation Pilot Project, final report, May 2005. (PDF; outside link)

National Planning Procedures Handbook: Draft comprehensive nutrient management planning technical guidance. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, July 2002.

Nutrient management: Careful management of all aspects of soil fertility to meet crop needs and minimize impacts on water quality. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Wisconsin.

Nutrient management. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service conservation practice standard, Code 590. (May 2001, revised December 2001; PDF format)

Components of a nutrient management plan in Minnesota. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, July 2002. (PDF format)

Manure and nutrient plans, permits, regulations. Iowa Manure Management Action Group, Iowa State University.

Illinois manure management plan. University of Illinois Extension.

Washington State University livestock nutrient management publications.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources: NR 243 animal feeding operation rule revisions. (2007)

Maps for nutrient management planning. By Thomas Bass and Julia Gaskin, Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Casey Ritz, Poultry Science Department, University of Georgia Cooperative Extension. (Revised March 2006)

Comprehensive nutrient management planning. CNMP project team, University of Nebraska.

Components of a complete manure management plan. By Profs. James Barker and Joseph Zublena, North Carolina State University, published by North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. (1996)

Composting: An alternative for livestock manure management and disposal of dead animals. By A. Sandeen and M. Gamroth, Oregon State University Extension Service. (2003)

Why a nutrient management plan? By Tom Basden, West Virginia University Extension Service.

Commentaries / opinions

Oklahoma water wars. By Trent Loos, for High Plains / Midwest Ag Journal. (Jan. 18, 2008)

Coalition letter on the Clean Water Restoration Act. From David Ridenour, National Center for Public Policy Research, et. al, to US House of Representatives Speaker Nancy Pelosi. (Oct. 9, 2007)

Not all favor restoring Clean Water Act. By Dan Gunderson, Minnesota Public Radio. (Sept. 27, 2007)

Western business group warns of Congressional power grab for West’s water. Western Business Roundtable on proposed Clean Water Restoration Act. (2007)

A revolt against EPA water quality rules; States, courts and Congress claim the EPA lacks the detailed water quality data to set water quality regulations By Dennis Avery, director of Global Food Issues, Hudson Institute. (July 2001)

Congress attempts to put brakes on TMDL juggernaut. Special to FCUSA by Russell Frye of Collier Shannon Scott, PLLC. (Sept. 7, 2000)

CWAP tsunamis: Don’t get swept away. By FCUSA executive director Teresa Platt. (June 15, 2000)

April showers bring May flowers … and technocrats? FCUSA commentary on Clean Water Action Plan. (May 10, 2000)

Farmers critical of nonpoint rules. From The Country Today (Wisconsin). (March 2000)

TMDLs: The EPA fishes something nasty from the Clean Water Act By Richard Halpern, published by the Center for Global Food Issues. This paper examines the EPA’s decision to pursue aggressive enforcement of the Clean Water Act’s section 303(d) – Total Maximum Daily Loads. (February 2000; PDF format)

The water rights rebellion. Analysis of Clean Water Action Plan by J. Zane Walley, Paragon Foundation. (June 1999)

Clean Water Act chaos. FCUSA commentary. (May 6, 1999)

A word on water: Clean Water Act and animal feeding operations. By FCUSA executive director Teresa Platt. (April 5, 1999)

United Kingdom

Manure management plan: A step by step guide for farmers. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. (June 2003; PDF format)

For further information contact Fur Commission USA.


© 1998-2011 Fur Commission USA